Monthly Archives: January 2014

Treats and Cheats: Re-Thinking “Forbidden Foods”

This post is part of the Tips From a Student series. The student lifestyle can sometimes be non-conducive to health. In this section I share my own strategies for balancing health, school, and social life.

Fruit Salad

Last week, in my post about orthorexia, I wrote about how important it is to think about food in a healthy way. No matter how healthy the food you’re eating is, mindset is key — especially if you have a history of disordered eating habits like so many of us do. Having a healthy mindset, however, is much more difficult than it sounds: there’s no switch you can flip to suddenly change the way you relate to food on a subconscious, emotional, or psychological level. This week, therefore, I want to share some tips about how to alter your mindset to think about food, especially treats, in a healthy, sustainable way.

In a search for health and/or fat loss, it is inevitable that you will stumble upon a program (or many programs) that advises you to eliminate something, to treat something as “forbidden”. This may be a particular group of foods (meat, grains, dairy, etc.), a particular micronutrient (fat, carbs, or protein), or something else (calories, sodium, cholesterol, etc.). Any program that wants to help you gain health or lose weight will almost certainly eliminate (or dramatically reduce) at least one of these elements. Leaving aside the issue of whether any individual program’s recommendations are in fact conducive to health, we can assume that these recommendations are at least intended to be healthy.

By categorizing any food or food group as “forbidden,” however, these recommendations have the potential to feed into the disordered mental processes of many individuals. An obsession begins over foods that are “allowed” and “not allowed,” and things like self-worth begin to hinge on those choices. On one end of the spectrum, this can lead to orthorexia: obsessive adherence to a way of eating characterized by self-punishment at the prospect of failure. On the other end of the spectrum, it leads to failure to adhere to the program: overwhelming guilt and often resignation from the program after a supposed “cheat”.

A low-carb dieter might sometimes give into the temptation of a bowl of pasta. A low-calorie dieter might binge on chocolate bars and ice cream. These are common experiences, but they create the illusion of a lazy, weak-willed population, unable to resist temptation. I personally, however, find it hard to have so little faith in humanity: I refuse to believe that all of those people out there trying so hard to get healthy are failing just because of a lack of will power. (NOTE: This is a multi-faceted issue that lies at the very heart of my interest in health and nutrition. Today I’m looking at the mental health side of the problem, but in future posts I will address the issue further).

How, then, can we change the way people are thinking about these “forbidden” foods? How can we avoid self-punishment, guilt, and failure? The following are four tips that helped (and continue to help) me immensely in fighting my disordered mindset.

Reframe the Question

One useful way to avoid thinking about “forbidden” foods and therefore opening yourself up to ideas like “failure” is to reframe the project in your mind. Instead of thinking about the foods you can’t eat, think about the ones you can. Instead of thinking about eliminating/reducing carbohydrates, think about adding protein, fat, and non-starchy vegetables. Instead of thinking about avoiding sodium or trans fats, focus on choosing real foods like vegetables and unprocessed meats (they’ll have less sodium and trans fat than low-sodium processed food anyway). By thinking about food with positive statements instead of negative ones, you set yourself up to be more positive about your food choices.

Make Things Clear

If there are specific foods that you have chosen to avoid, make sure you know why you have eliminated them. Decisions really only have power behind them when you make them for you. Just because your doctor (or partner, or friend, or diet guru) tells you something is healthy, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you really believe them or that the choice was really yours. Before deciding to avoid something, make sure you really believe it.

Food intolerances and allergies make this part really easy. If you know that a certain food is going to send you running to the washroom, give you a rash, or put you into anaphylactic shock, it’s a lot easier to avoid it: there is a clear, short-term consequence. Similarly, moral, ethical, or religious food decisions are easy to make because there is strong mental structure behind those choices.

On the other hand, avoiding something just for the heck of it or because someone told you to will be extremely difficult, setting you up for failure. If you’re in this situation, think carefully about why you are really eliminating those foods. Are you reducing your carbohydrate intake to lose fat? Are you avoiding soy and corn products because you oppose genetic modification? Whatever your reasons are, make them clear so that you know why you’re making the decision to avoid that food.

Turn It Into a Lifestyle

We’ve all heard it before: this isn’t a diet, it’s a lifestyle. Often what people mean when they say that is that it’s a long-term diet program and/or that it incorporates lifestyle factors apart from food, like sleep and exercise. When I say lifestyle, I’m talking about something much more encompassing: a mentality that allows for sustainability. In the space of a three-week detox or a quick fat-loss plan, you might be able to avoid a long list of “forbidden” foods entirely. In the space of a lifetime, however, total avoidance is difficult to maintain without falling prey to some form of mental disorder. Sometimes, as in the case of allergies, intolerances, and moral/ethical/religious convictions, it is necessary (and therefore easier) to avoid certain foods. For others decisions, however, like avoiding sugar or genetically-modified products, it is sometimes better to be flexible and make peace with the idea of occasional treats — it will depend on the food and your own situation how often these treats should be incorporated.

NOTE: Be careful not to turn these exceptions or treats into rules (for example, I can have one piece of chocolate cake each week or I can only have french fries on days that I also go to the gym). These sorts of rules have good intentions behind them, but they can easily be incorporated into an orthorexic mindset. Think instead about what treats are acceptable to you and give rough guidelines about how often you can have those treats without interfering with your original goals. Most importantly, don’t think about the treats as “cheating” or “falling off the wagon”: if you can have a slice of cake now and then without de-railing your health goals, GO FOR IT!

Make Conscious Decisions

The biggest factor in all of this is woven through all of the above tips: make conscious decisions. The difference between a treat and a cheat, between a choice and a failure, is the level of involvement you had in that decision. A craving for a bowl of chocolate ice cream is fine and completely understandable: does that mean you should grab the whole carton and a spoon and start chowing down? Probably not. Does that mean you shouldn’t have any ice cream? Not necessarily. Food tastes great–there’s no denying it–but the taste only lasts a few moments: after that you have to deal with the consequences to your health. By giving into cravings for taste without thinking about the long-term consequences, we set ourselves up for guilt and self-punishment. By making a conscious decision to eat something, despite any negative consequences, we can fully enjoy it and then move on to make a lifetime’s worth of healthy decisions. Similarly, we are empowered by decisions to avoid something or to opt for a healthier option.

None of these tips will necessarily change anything about what you’re eating, but by incorporating these elements into your mindset surrounding food, you will set yourself up for success and for healthy mental processes.

Orthorexia: When Health Choices Turn Problematic

Strawberry

On a morning in June 2013, I woke up from a nightmare in a cold sweat. My heart was pounding. I could still feel the echoes of stress and emotions the dream had inspired in me. Part of me was convinced that the dream had been real. I tried to pull my thoughts together, to get a grip on reality. What had I been dreaming about? Food choices. I dreamed that I ate a bowl of strawberries.

Yes. I literally had a nightmare about eating fruit.

I should put this into context for you. Last June I had recently completed a half-marathon, and during the final weeks of training I had been carb-loading (mostly on fruits and starchy vegetables). After it was done, I was still having cravings for high-sugar foods even though I was no longer participating in any glycogen-demanding activities. I wanted to break this cycle of cravings, so I decided that for three weeks I would avoid all sugar. In addition to grains and refined sugars which I regularly avoid, I removed unrefined sugars (i.e. maple syrup, honey); starchy vegetables (i.e. potatoes, rutabaga); fruit; and alcohol from my diet for three weeks. My reasoning was that these three weeks would break the cycle of carb cravings and get me out of the habit of eating sugary snacks and desserts every day.

This sort of cold-turkey approach works for some people. For other people, like me, challenges like this can be really problematic. For people like me, having a list of “forbidden foods” that cannot be eaten for any given period of time can lead to a disordered way of thinking about those foods and about eating in general. This type of thinking is known as “orthorexia nervosa.” Though orthorexia is not an officially recognized disorder, it is a widely-recognized label for this common sort of disordered thinking. The National Eating Disorders Association defines orthorexia as follows:

“Those who have an “unhealthy obsession” with otherwise healthy eating may be suffering from “orthorexia nervosa,” a term which literally means “fixation on righteous eating.”  Orthorexia starts out as an innocent attempt to eat more healthfully, but orthorexics become fixated on food quality and purity.  They become consumed with what and how much to eat, and how to deal with “slip-ups.”  An iron-clad will is needed to maintain this rigid eating style.  Every day is a chance to eat right, be “good,” rise above others in dietary prowess, and self-punish if temptation wins (usually through stricter eating, fasts and exercise).  Self-esteem becomes wrapped up in the purity of orthorexics’ diet and they sometimes feel superior to others, especially in regard to food intake.” (Karin Kratina, PhD, RD, LD/N)

Orthorexia can present as strict calorie-counting, adherence to a specific diet, or obsessive exercise: these are things we see often in North American society, but the important thing to remember is that it is the thought process behind orthorexia that is problematic. Choosing to eliminate soda from one’s diet, for instance, is arguably a healthy decision. However, if giving into temptation and having a single soda leads to overwhelming guilt and self-punishment, then that is not a healthy way to live.

It’s ironic that such an unhealthy way of thinking could be associated with a search for health. Looking back on the last few years of my life, I know I have had quite a bit of personal experience with this sort of thinking, but it was only on that day in June 2013 that I really recognized it in myself and knew I had to fight against it. When I woke up from that nightmare, in which I was genuinely freaking out at the idea that I had failed in this challenge I had set myself, I knew I had to change something about the way I was thinking about food.

I won’t claim here to be completely “cured”: I’m sure that elements of this disordered way of thinking will follow me for my entire life. I have in the last seven months, however, figured out a few things to help deal with it. The first is being aware of how I’m feeling and reacting to food choices: am I choosing to eat or not eat something because it’s my conscious choice? or because it’s a “rule”? The second is making sure that I never feel deprived: I may choose not to eat grains or processed foods most of the time, but it’s always a choice, and when I feel like having a chocolate bar, I have one. The third is focusing on adding good stuff to my diet instead of eliminating bad stuff: instead of focusing on not eating pasta, I focus on eating more of my favourite vegetables at each meal. The more I consciously think this way, the easier it gets to avoid more problematic ways of thinking about food, but I’ve still got a long way to go.

I’m putting this out there today because I don’t think I’m alone in this. I have battled with binge eating for many years, and I thought I’d overcome it only to find that I’d just replaced it with orthorexia. Eating disorders come in many forms, but besides anorexia and bulimia very few are widely acknowledged. It’s beyond painful to admit to yourself that these are issues you need to face, but it’s important to be open about it, to talk about it, and to hope that doing so may help someone else.

Real Resolutions: How to Set Achievable Goals

This post is coming a little late for New Year’s resolutions, but I’ve been thinking about this topic since I saw the New Year’s Resolution Rush at the gym earlier this week. I go to a gym on campus at my university about two or three times a week at 6:30 am, right when it opens. As you might expect, most students find it difficult to get up for morning classes, much less 6:30 am workouts, so the gym at this time of the morning is fairly sparsely populated. Except for the first few weeks of January. In January, without fail, there is always a huge crowd of students standing outside the doors to the gym by 6:25, eager to make good on their exercise-based resolutions. Of course, by mid-term time, nearly all of them are gone.

I’m not one to begrudge someone for not making it to the gym, especially not so early in the morning — I myself have been known to re-set the alarm for an extra hour or two of sleep on occasion. What I find interesting about this annual rush, however, (I’ve seen it for the past six years) is what it indicates about the sustainability of any sort of resolution, New Year’s-related or otherwise. Resolutions made on the first day of January are notoriously unsustainable: we’ve probably all had experiences with those promises that don’t last much past January 3rd. The question we should all be asking ourselves, then, is “why?” Why did we fail to reach our goals? This question can have many answers and it will depend on the person and the goal, but most of those answers can be summarized into four main reasons why most resolutions and goals fail to be accomplished. In this post I will outline those four main reasons and give examples of some solutions.

Mistake #1: Lack of Motivation

Lack of motivation is a huge contributor to goal-failure but one that is not often recognized. It’s great to say “I want to exercise more,” but the important question to ask yourself is how much do you want it? Do you want to exercise more than you want to play video games? More than you want to hang out with friends? We have limited time in the day, and any goal that involves doing something is going to require some time out of your day. You probably didn’t have a ton of unfilled time before making this goal, so it is likely that you will have to stop doing something else in order to make time for this new time-consuming activity. If you have a full-time job, a good social life, a couple of hobbies, and a desire to eat and sleep everyday, fitting in exercise can be really difficult: so do you want to workout enough that you are willing to give up something else?

Solution: Consider your level of motivation before making the goal. When you decide that you want to lose fat or get in shape or learn how to play piano, you have to decide whether you care about it enough. Do you care enough about losing fat to stop eating certain foods? Do you care enough about getting in shape to make time in your schedule to walk or go to the gym? Do you care enough about learning to play piano to find time to practice every day? These may seem like obvious connections, but we often don’t think about the connection between the abstract and the practical when we’re making resolutions. If you find that your motivation isn’t enough, then maybe this isn’t the right time in your life for that goal. Amend it or postpone it until your level of motivation is sufficient to accomplish it.

Mistake #2: Ambiguity

I can’t count the number of times that someone has told me about a resolution like “I want to get healthier” or “I want to save more money” or “I want to be more organized.” These resolutions are coming from a good place – a desire for self-improvement – but there is very little chance that this person will be successful in accomplishing any one of those goals because they are too ambiguous. The words “healthier,” “more,” and “organized” are such abstract concepts that can mean so many different things that these goals could be accomplished in many different ways but are therefore unlikely to be accomplished at all.

Solution: Make a concrete plan. First, ask yourself what “healthy” means for you. Does this mean that you want to lose fat? gain muscle? regulate blood sugar? Once you have a more solid idea of your goal, make a resolution that will help you get there. For instance, “I will stop eating snacks between meals” or “I will go to the gym three times per week” or “I will avoid any foods with refined or added sugar” are all good, specific resolutions that could all work towards the end goal of “healthy.” Similarly, saving money could involve getting a new job or it could involve not buying $5 lattes every day of the week. Becoming more organized could mean using an agenda to write down to do lists and appointments or it could mean taking time to sort and file the papers on your desk. By making your resolutions more specific, you are more likely to be able to stick to them for a longer period of time.

Mistake #3: All-or-Nothing Mentality

The all-or-nothing mentality has historically been my own biggest weakness when it comes to making resolutions. I have a tendency to sometimes give up entirely at the first sign of a slip-up. For example, last September, I decided to start meditating for 10 minutes twice a day (morning and evening) to help with stress management. It was easy to meditate in the morning right when I woke up, but I found taking the time in the evening to be difficult: by the time I was getting ready for bed, all I wanted to do was sleep, not spend another ten minutes sitting, breathing deeply. I tried to force myself to do it, but it just wasn’t working for me. It frustrated me that I wasn’t able to succeed with my resolution, and so whenever I thought about meditating, I got frustrated (defeating the whole purpose of stress-relief meditation). As a result, I just stopped meditating entirely, even in the mornings. Because I had failed in part of my resolution, I made myself fail all of it.

Solution: The way to deal with small failures is not to give up, but to address why they happened and how to avoid them in the future. In my case, once I realized that evening meditation was just not working for my schedule, I should have compromised and focused on just my morning meditations, which I enjoyed. The same principle can be applied to things like new ways of eating or exercising. If you have decided to avoid chocolate, for instance, but then you eat a kit kat bar one day when you’re stressed or upset or just craving chocolate, there’s no reason to give up on your resolution all together. Just get right back on the wagon and move on.

Mistake #4: Resolution Overload

The final mistake I see a lot of people making with resolutions is trying to change too much at once. It can be difficult, sometimes, when there are lots of things about our lives that we want to change, to choose just one to focus on, but that can be really crucial to the success of any one resolution. If your goal for the year is to lose fat and gain muscle and regulate your blood sugar and learn to play piano and get organized and and and and ad infinitum, then it is unlikely that you will be able to reach any of your goals, much less all of them. As mentioned earlier, we have only so much time and so much motivation: choose too many goals and those valuable resources will be spread too thinly.

Solution: Stick to one resolution, goal, or habit at a time, then move on to the next one. This can be in the form of gaining a new habit every few weeks (this month I will stop drinking soda, next month I will stop eating chocolate, the month after that I will start going for a walk after dinner every day, etc.) or it could be tackling a bigger goal each year (in 2014 I will lose 3 dress sizes, in 2015 I will bench press my body weight, in 2016 I will learn to speak Spanish, etc.). Each of these goals takes effort to attain: if you focus all of your effort in a given period of time on that goal, you are more likely to reach it.

Even though New Year’s has passed now, it’s never to late to make or revise your resolutions. Good luck!